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The Agroforestry Handbook


This comprehensive handbook, written in 2019, covers the planning, design and implementation of silvopasture (including grazed orchards), silvoarable, hedgerows, riparian buffers and shelter belts / windbreaks. It also covers costs, benefits, profitability, potential funding sources, and land tenure. Selected case studies are provided by the Woodland Trust.

The handbook also provides evidence on the benefits of agroforestry for productivity. For silvopasture this includes providing shade, shelter, fodder and other welfare benefits for livestock, which can result in reduced stress and mortality, increased fertility, and higher-grade produce. For silvoarable the key benefits are sheltering crops from wind, reducing evapotranspiration, reduced soil erosion and diversifying farm income via tree crops or timber. The handbook provides guidance on key issues essential for reducing trade-offs, such as the optimum spacing between rows of trees to avoid over-shading and allow access to farm machinery.


Guidance type/project stage

  • Ecosystem creation
  • Funding
  • Governance
  • Implementation
  • Ecosystem management
  • Planning


  • Agroforestry
  • Farmland
  • Hedgerows
  • Woodland

Challenges addressed

  • Climate change adaptation
  • Biodiversity
  • Food production
  • Climate change mitigation
  • Natural flood management
  • Water quality

Source | The Soil Association

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